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  Solar LED Street Light: Why Is It So Popular?
Posté par : DFDVX125 - Aujourd’hui, - Forum : Présentez-vous... - Pas de réponse

Solar LED Street Light: Why Is It So Popular?
The LED technology has significantly made the street lights more eco-friendly by reducing the amount of energy consumption. However, most of the existing street lights often face the problem of energy shortages. We can end this dependency on conventional sources of energy to power the street lights by harnessing the sun's power.
Solar LED Street Lights are popular because they are designed to produce light 90% more efficiently than any other street light. The LED technology converts almost 95% of the energy into light. On the contrary, incandescent street light bulbs convert only 10% of the energy into light while 90% is wasted as heat.
In addition to its efficiency, governments around the world are promoting the use of solar energy and LED technology to reduce their carbon footprint without compromising on the availability of energy.
How Does Solar Street Light Work?
Solar street lights are never at the risk of running out of power because they’re based on the most abundant and perpetual source of energy in the world-the sun.
They are designed to be compact and self-sufficient in terms of their power source. The solar panel captures the daylight energy and store it in the battery unit, which powers the street light as required when it is dark.
Today, most solar-powered street lights systems are controlled by sensors.
To maximize the efficiency of solar street light, we have to consider optimizing its components to reduce costs and overall energy usage. The solution is to use energy-efficient technology like LED Street Lights.
How Do I Choose The Best Solar Street Light?
The outdoor solar street lights come in different shapes, sizes, and capacities. There are many alternatives available in the solar LED street light market. Before you decide on the best solar street light, you should consider it in terms of quality, features, design, power consumption, durability, and the most important, customer service.
The choice of a solar street light depends on the place and purpose of its application. The solar street lights requirements for household use are maybe quite different from that of businesses and communities. We have gone through several brands and products of solar LED street lights to help you with your decision.
The following section includes the 10 best LED solar street lights that we picked and tested, along with their ranking and reviews.
Advantages and Disadvantages of Using LED Street Lights
Now in cities, street lights can be seen everywhere, and they provide convenience and safety for our life every day. After a long period of development, LED lights are now mostly used in street lights. Compared with high-pressure sodium lamps, the use of LED street light has more benefits.
1.It is a unidirectional light source, without light diffusion, ensuring light efficiency.
2.The LED street light has a unique secondary optical design, which irradiates the light of the lamp to the area that needs to be illuminated, while this further improves the light efficiency to achieve the purpose of energy saving.
3.The luminous efficiency of LED has reached 110-130lm/W, and there is still a lot of space for development, with a theoretical value of 360lm/W. The luminous efficiency of high-pressure sodium lamps increases with the increase of power. Therefore, the overall luminous efficiency of LED street lights is stronger than that of high-pressure sodium lamps.
4. The color rendering of LED street lights is much higher than the high pressure sodium lamps. The color rendering index of high pressure sodium lamps is only about 23, while the color rendering index of LED street lights is above 75. From the perspective of visual psychology, to achieve the same brightness, LED light is more than 20% lower than high pressure sodium lamp.
5. The light decay of LED light is small, it is less than 3% in a year, and it still meets the road requirements after 10 years of use, while the high-pressure sodium lamp has a large decay, which has dropped by more than 30% in about a year. Therefore, the design of the power of the LED street light can be lower than high-pressure sodium lamps.
6. The LED street light has an automatic control energy-saving device, which can achieve the greatest possible reduction in power and energy saving under the condition of meeting the lighting requirements at different times. It can realize computer dimming, time period control, light control, temperature control, automatic inspection and other humanized functions.
7. It can be used for more than 50,000 hours and provides three-year quality assurance. But the disadvantage is that the battery life cannot be guaranteed.
8.Using chips ≥100LM, LED street light can save more than 75% of energy compared with traditional high pressure sodium lamps.
9. It′s easy to install, no need to add buried cables, no rectifiers, etc., directly connect to the light pole or nest the light source into the original lampshade.
10. Excellent heat dissipation control: The temperature in summer is controlled below 45 degrees, and passive heat dissipation is adopted, and the heat dissipation in summer is insufficient.
11. Reliable quality: All circuit power supplies use high-quality components, and each LED has individual overcurrent protection, so there is no need to worry about the damage.
12. Uniform light color: No lens is added, and uniform light color is not sacrificed to improve brightness, so as to ensure uniform light color without aperture.
13. LED does not contain harmful metal mercury, and will not cause harm to the environment when it is scrapped.
Types of indoor lighting
After thousands of years of living with very natural forms of lighting such as moonlight, campfires and candles a massive change came in the late nineteen century. Along came Edison with his incandescent light bulb and DC electricity, and a few years later Tesla with his Alternating Current (AC) electricity.
In the 1940s, fluorescent lighting took off and in the 1960s came LED lights in various colours. The white bright light LEDs are a much more recent invention, really only coming into play from 2010.
This brings us to the two main types of indoor lighting when it comes to the quality of light: thermal lights and non-thermal lights.
Thermal lights are made from heat. With non-thermal lighting, heat isn’t used but other technologies.
Thermal lights include incandescent (that is, old school light bulbs and halogens) whereas non-thermal lights include LED and fluorescent (or any type of energy saving lights, otherwise known as CFLs).
Incandescent light bulbs and halogens are therefore more akin to daylight. Not only because the light is a product of heat but the spectrum of light is also fairly similar to natural light. There are no severe peaks and troughs, the spectrum is gradual and it’s also full of colours. They primarily give off light in the yellow, orange, red, and infrared spectrum.
LED Light Bulbs
Lighting has become something that's easy to take for granted until a bulb goes out. When that time comes, the number of choices available is higher than it's ever been. When shopping for light bulbs, you can sidestep the bans and continue using incandescent bulbs, despite their limited lifespan, so that you don't have to give up the familiar glow you’re used to. Some have taken the first step to using energy-efficient lighting use compact fluorescent light (CFL) bulbs.
Compared to incandescent bulbs, CFL bulbs seemed like a great upgrade. However, the reduced power consumption and heat output came with two drawbacks. Many compact fluorescent light bulbs don't achieve full brightness immediately or work well with dimmers. This has made it difficult for some to replace their incandescent lights until they could upgrade without these compromises; this is where LED lighting comes into play. When compared to incandescent and CFL bulbs, LEDs generate the same amount of light while using a fraction of the energy. LED bulbs turn on instantly to full brightness and last far longer.
What Is A Solar Panel?
Solar energy begins with the sun. Solar panels (also known as "PV panels") are used to convert light from the sun, which is composed of particles of energy called "photons", into electricity that can be used to power electrical loads.
Solar panels can be used for a wide variety of applications including remote power systems for cabins, telecommunications equipment, remote sensing, and of course for the production of electricity by residential and commercial solar electric systems.
Using solar panels is a very practical way to produce electricity for many applications. The obvious would have to be off-grid living. Living off-grid means living in a location that is not serviced by the main electric utility grid. Remote homes and cabins benefit nicely from solar power systems. No longer is it necessary to pay huge fees for the installation of electric utility poles and cabling from the nearest main grid access point. A solar electric system is potentially less expensive and can provide power for upwards of three decades if properly maintained.
Besides the fact that solar panels make it possible to live off-grid, perhaps the greatest benefit that you would enjoy from the use of solar power is that it is both a clean and a renewable source of energy. With the advent of global climate change, it has become more important that we do whatever we can to reduce the pressure on our atmosphere from the emission of greenhouse gases. Solar panels have no moving parts and require little maintenance. They are ruggedly built and last for decades when porperly maintained.
Last, but not least, of the benefits of solar panels and solar power is that, once a system has paid for its initial installation costs, the electricity it produces for the remainder of the system's lifespan, which could be as much as 15-20 years depending on the quality of the system, is absolutely free! For grid-tie solar power system owners, the benefits begin from the moment the system comes online, potentially eliminating monthy electric bills or, and this is the best part, actually earning the system's owner additional income from the electric company. How? If you use less power than your solar electric system produces, that excess power can be sold, sometimes at a premium, to your electric utility company!
There are many other applications and benefits of using solar panels to generate your electricity needs - too many to list here. But as you browse our website, you'll gain a good general knowledge of just how versatile and convenient solar power can be.

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  Minimalist Kitchen Equipment List: Everything You Need
Posté par : DFDVX125 - Aujourd’hui, - Forum : Présentez-vous... - Pas de réponse

Minimalist Kitchen Equipment List: Everything You Need
When I moved into my first apartment after college, my mom and I made one epic trip to Ikea to pick up life essentials. I'm talking about a bed frame, a night stand, some shelves, and of course, kitchen equipment. And man, do I wish I had a kitchen equipment list like this when we did our major equipment haul!
Kitchen stuff is something you don't really start to accumulate until you've graduated college. Up until then, you're probably using what you brought from home and your college roommate's pots and pans. When you're finally on your own, though, you have to start somewhere, but even the most basic list of kitchen essentials is still dauntingly long.
To start, here's a quick kitchen equipment list that will help you get started:
Cutlery (knives, forks, spoons)
A few glasses/cups
A few plates (we currently only have 6 plates for 2 people)
One eight-inch chef’s knife (more on that later)
A medium-sized pot and 10-inch pan
A spatula
A large stirring spoon
Oven mitts
A glass baking dish
A metal baking sheet
A colander
A can opener
You can do a lot with just that kitchen equipment list, but most people tend to accumulate more than the bare minimum of equipment over time. This is what I want you to avoid!
After all, it's hard not to when there are a plethora of random kitchen tools just a click away, and they're all pretty tempting. Have you been inside a Williams-Sonoma? Just the sight of all the pasta machines and coffee accessories will have you dreaming of becoming that person that makes lattes and pasta from scratch. But, if we're being honest, you probably won't. Because, despite my best intentions, I've only used my milk frother twice in the last 2 years.
Kitchen Gadgets
One of the earliest recorded uses of the term "gadget" was in 1886 as a nautical term referring to a small, somewhat specialized contrivance. It is unclear when the term first entered kitchen parlance, but the Oxford English Dictionary records the earliest use of the expression "kitchen gadget" as 1951 in the Good Housekeeping Home Encyclopedia, which remarked that kitchen gadgets are often discarded because it takes too much time to clean them.
A popular contemporary taxonomy of kitchen technology must account for the essential ambiguity of the term. Terms like "gadget," "utensil," "accoutrement," "tool," and "appliance" overlap. A kitchen gadget may be a specialized artifact used for the preparation of a single kind of dish or for performing one specific function across a variety of dishes. As such, it can be distinguished if only in a general sense from the broader term "kitchen utensil," which would include multipurpose and essential kitchen equipment, such as chefs' knives and large appliances like ovens and refrigerators. In modern usage the term "kitchen gadget" also may be pejorative. It is often used to refer to novelty items, gimmicky and cheap kitchen equipment that purports to ease the burdens of homemakers. As the usage in the Good Housekeeping Home Encyclopedia indicated, gadgets may be the kinds of products that accumulate in the back of kitchen drawers until they are discarded. Another aspect of the gadget is its symbolic character. Gadgets may be displayed as items that represent taste, newness, or status.
Although the term "gadget" originated in the late Victorian era, it is often used retroactively to refer to pre-Victorian forms of specialized kitchen equipment. Providing an account of early kitchen tools is difficult as such items rarely made their way onto household inventories. It is well established that, apart from the kitchens of the aristocracy, pre-Victorian cookery, at least in the British Isles, was almost entirely a matter of boiling in a pot, cauldron, or kettle; baking in an oven or on a bake stone; and roasting on a spit. A number of devices were designed to assist the pre-Victorian cook with each of these kitchen tasks.
Are Pet Supplies A Good Niche For Drop Shipping?
Selecting the right niche is the foundation of a dropshipping business. When choosing the niche for your dropshipping store, you have to consider a few things. With this, a good niche good is something that your market love. And that includes pet supplies. In this post, we will talk about pet supplies as a niche for your dropshipping store.
Are pet supplies a good niche for drop shipping? Yes, pet supplies are good niches because people who have pets are emotionally attached to their pets that they always want to buy something for them. It is just like a new parent having a baby. Pet owners are likely to make purchases often for their pets.
We understand that there could be multiple niche or products on your dropshipping stores. Getting a profitable niche is the backbone of your business. Without getting the right niche for your market, your store will not earn money. Pet supplies are one of the many niches that you as a drop shipper can sell online.
Pet supplies is a wide range of niche that can help your sales for your dropshipping. As we go along this post, we would know further why pet supplies are a good niche, and what products you could sell for your dropshipping store.
Why Does Pet Supplies Make A Good Niche for Dropshipping?
Large Market to Target
Did you know that sixty-eight percent of the household in the United States have pets? This is roughly eight five million families owning a pet. Imagine the number of people you target as a market for your dropshipping. Considering the number of potential customers, pet supplies are good niches in dropshipping.
For Pet Lovers, It Is a Sign of Love
Aside from the number of pet owner, pet owners consider their pets as a family. To some, they treat their dogs, or cats as their child and part of the family. They have an emotional connection with the pets and would treat them special. Having said that, buying supplies, treats and pet stuff would be common to the pet lovers.
They Use Pet Supplies as a Gift
Thirty-five percent of pet lovers are millennials. Because they love their pets too much, they want to buy stuff that will make them look good or things that could possibly help in caring for their pets. These pet lovers would regularly buy stuff for their pets as a gift at least once a month. To some, with more than one pet, it could be more frequent.
Classification of sports equipment
There are three main categories of sports equipment classification:
1, according to the sport classification of the project, which is all the same sports related equipment and equipment, such as a class of methods, such as track and field equipment, weightlifting equipment, ice and snow equipment.
2, based on the nature of the classification of sports equipment, generally can be divided into designated equipment, owned equipment, equipment and other equipment 4 categories. Designated equipment class is the common use of the two sides of the competition, in order to avoid differences arising from the need to specify the equipment in advance of the brand (trademark), manufacturer and specification models; owned equipment is the athletes use their own equipment, such as racket, sailing and rowing , Paddle, sports clothing, protective gear, shoes and hats, etc .; site equipment category refers to the facilities of competition and training venues equipment and equipment, such as a variety of goals, ball, baffle, time scoring equipment, referee appliances; Equipment mainly refers to non-competition use of equipment, generally physical training, fitness activities, sports recreation equipment.
3, according to the classification of sports equipment, sports equipment is divided into sports, national defense military sports equipment, Chinese folk sports equipment, physical fitness rehabilitation equipment, children's sports recreation equipment, sports equipment disabled persons, auxiliary equipment. Competitive sports equipment: Sports equipment used for athletes, including equipment listed in the table, in addition to bicycles, cars, motorcycles, equestrian, fishing, aviation model, navigation model and other items of equipment, as well as non-Olympic Games (Bowling), golf, cricket (paddle ball), shuttlecock ball, tennis ball, bowling ball, bowling ball, tennis ball, ball hockey ball, ball hockey, tennis ball and so on in the international are professional sports organization sports equipment, Board tennis, back to the ball, pocket tennis, goalkeeper, billiards, to throw the ball, skills and other items with equipment.
Beauty Salon Equipment List
A beauty salon is an institution that provides women with facilities to improve their appearance, including painting, manicuring, facial treatment, and massage. Equipment that is of the highest quality you can afford is always better to buy. You need to look at the beauty salon equipment like beauty salon chairs, salon trolleys, etc. as an investment that both pays for themselves and brings long-term profits for you. Of course, instead of buying outright, you can always lease beauty salon equipment, so look at what suits your budget best.
1. Salon Facial Machines
Salon Facial machines are important for a skilled treatment of the esthetics. Without a simple steamer or mag lamp, esthetic rooms wouldn't be full but can be improved with single or multifunction systems. Below are five basic resources that every aesthetician requires on his face computer.
Facial Steamer
A facial steamer is considered one of the most valuable devices for every salon as it performs several critical tasks on clients and patients. Used mainly to help moisturize and cleanse the skin, it may also use steam to widen the pores of the skin, allowing increased blood circulation across the face and other body parts.
Facial Vaporizer
A facial vaporizer, similar to a facial steamer, also combines steam and ozone to revitalize a person's face and other areas of the body. But along with this, the aromatherapy therapies also use a facial vaporizer. A vaporizer is particularly popular in day spas and can use aromatherapy to help a person not only get revitalized skin but also relax and get rid of the stresses they have experienced in their lives.
Ice Roller
While many patients and clients use facial vaporizers and steamers well, many others often turn to ice rollers to help them achieve their desired results. An ice roller is mainly used to treat acne, reduce redness of the skin, to reduce lines and wrinkles, to relax the skin, and to relieve muscle pain.
Ultrasonic Skin Scrubber
An ultrasonic skin scrubber is an essential tool for any aesthetician's facial machine becoming more popular with customers at day spas who want extensive facials. The ultrasonic skin scrubber is also commonly used on patients who have undergone facelifts, ideal for clients who want deep cleaning, and full penetration of serums and moisturizers.
Skin Scanner
Just looking at the mirror, we do not get many ideas about the skin problems faced by us. For the same reason, a special machine is needed. A skin scanner is often required to fully understand what's happening to their skin. Used by most estheticians to conduct an initial examination of a person's skin condition, a skin scanner relies on blacklight blue lamp technology to penetrate under the skin's outer surface, exposing various conditions using fluorescent colors. By using this tool, aestheticians can detect conditions such as sun exposure below the skin's surface, obstructed pores, poor circulation, dehydrated skin, and much more.
2. Beauty Beds
Beauty Beds form an essential part of the experience of beauty and spa. Buying premium beauty beds and beauty sofas that will keep you and your clients happy. Beauty beds provide a great way of relaxation and comfort to customers. As clients need support while receiving facial treatment, a comfortable and soft bed for facial massage is the crucial way to give their customers such feeling. The Beauty bed is also used for waxing. Most salon beds and couches are made from PVC or vinyl. This has the advantage that they are easy to clean. Some well-known brands for Beauty bed are Lotus, REM, Affinity, and many more, etc

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  What is Aluminum Extrusion? The Process in 10 Steps
Posté par : DFDVX125 - Aujourd’hui, - Forum : Présentez-vous... - Pas de réponse

What is Aluminum Extrusion? The Process in 10 Steps
The use of aluminum extrusion in product design and manufacturing has increased significantly in recent decades.
According to a recent report from Technavio, between 2019-2023 the growth of the global aluminum extrusion market will be accelerating with a Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) of almost 4%.
Perhaps you’ve heard of this manufacturing process and are wondering what it is and how it works.
Today we’ll discuss what aluminum extrusion is, the benefits it offers, and the steps involved in the extrusion process.
We’ll begin with the most basic and essential question.
Step #1: The Extrusion Die is Prepared and Moved to the Extrusion Press
First, a round-shaped die is machined from H13 steel. Or, if one is already available, it is pulled from a warehouse like the one you see here.
Before extrusion, the die must be preheated to between 450-500 degrees celsius to help maximize its life and ensure even metal flow.
Once the die has been preheated, it can be loaded into the extrusion press.
Step #2: An Aluminum Billet is Preheated Before Extrusion
Next, a solid, cylindrical block of aluminum alloy, called a billet, is cut from a longer log of alloy material.
It is preheated in an oven, like this one, to between 400-500 degrees celsius.
This makes it malleable enough for the extrusion process but not molten.
Step #3: The Billet is Transferred to the Extrusion Press
Once the billet has been preheated, it is transferred mechanically to the extrusion press.
Before it is loaded onto the press, a lubricant (or release agent) is applied to it.
The release agent is also applied to the extrusion ram, to prevent the billet and ram from sticking together.
Step #4: The Ram Pushes the Billet Material into the Container
Now, the malleable billet is loaded into the extrusion press, where the hydraulic ram applies up to 15,000 tons of pressure to it.
As the ram applies pressure, the billet material is pushed into the container of the extrusion press.
The material expands to fill the walls of the container.
Step #5: The Extruded Material Emerges Through the Die
As the alloy material fills the container, it is now being pressed up against the extrusion die.
With continual pressure being applied to it, the aluminum material has nowhere to go except out through the opening(s) in the die.
It emerges from the die's opening in the shape of a fully-formed profile.
Step #6: Extrusions are Guided Along the Runout Table and Quenched
After emerging, the extrusion is gripped by a puller, like the one you see here, which guides it along the runout table at a speed that matches its exit from the press.
As it moves along the runout table, the profile is “quenched,” or uniformly cooled by a water bath or by fans above the table.
Step #7: Extrusions are Sheared to Table Length
Once an extrusion reaches its full table length, it is sheared by a hot saw to separate it from the extrusion process.
At every step of the process, temperature plays an important role.
Although the extrusion was quenched after exiting the press, it has not yet fully cooled.
Step #8: Extrusions are Cooled to Room Temperature
After shearing, table-length extrusions are mechanically transferred from the runout table to a cooling table, like the one you see here.
The profiles will remain there until they reach room temperature.
Once they do, they will need to be stretched.
Step #9: Extrusions are Moved to the Stretcher and Stretched into Alignment
Some natural twisting has occurred in the profiles and this needs to be corrected.
To correct this, they are moved to a stretcher.
Each profile is mechanically gripped on both ends and pulled until it is fully straight and has been brought into specification.
Step #10: Extrusions are Moved to the Finish Saw and Cut to Length
With the table-length extrusions now straight and fully work-hardened, they are transferred to the saw table.
Here, they are sawed to pre-specified lengths, generally between 8 and 21 feet long. At this point, the properties of the extrusions match the T4 temper.
Aluminum profile advantages
Aluminum profile advantages,why choose aluminum profile, not brass, not iron, not stainless steel? It is aluminum profile.
1 The density of aluminum profiles is lower than other commonly used metal density, light weight; the density is only 2.70 g/cm3, 1/3 of copper or iron.
2 Hot and cold both treatment process, it has strong corrosion resistance
3 Global aluminum has rich reserves and it has high aluminum content in the earth
4 Good ductility and elongation, which can be alloyed with many metal elements to produce light alloy material quality
5 Strong deformability, good yielding ability, has the advantages for the production
6 Good casting properties
7 Good performances for the surface treatment
8 Stable chemical properties, non-magnetic, can be recycled and reused, it is a good and recyclable metal materials
9 Small elastic coefficients, no spark in collision and friction, the best performance in automotive technology
10 Anti-nuclear radiations
11 No metallic pollution, no poison, no volatile metal in the surface oxide layer
12 Good thermal properties and electrical conductivity, it is outstanding performance in the short-distance power transmission.
The aluminum profile is common metal materials in the social production, which has a wide range of applications in the aviation, construction, condenser, auto parts and other industries. Its excellent performance and many advantages, make aluminum profile got favors by the industry at large.
What is a Door Profile?
Door profiles are useful accessories used to fill the gaps at points where a floor ends, and another floor begins. For example, say your hallway has wooden floorboards running along the length of the hall, but your living room has a carpet, you would use a door profile that slots under the door to bridge the gap between the two rooms/floors. It is useful to note that there are different names for these accessories like: door bars, door thresholds, door trims, or door strips. While there are minor differences for some of these, they all perform the same function.
There are various types of door profiles depending on the flooring you have, as well as the material and height of the flooring. Take the example mentioned above, if you have two rooms, one with a wood floor and another with a carpet, you would need a special type of door profile where one side will hook into the carpet to hold it down, and the other side will simply sit next to the wood floor, allowing it room to expand while bridging the gap between the two together.
For floors that are of different sizes, say a wood floor in one room is 14mm, then you have a vinyl to a connecting bathroom that is 7mm, a normal door profile will not fit as it would be unlevel with a 7mm gap on one side. In this case, you would need a ramp, which is a door profile that curves upwards to account for the differences in length and joins the rooms adequately.
Door profiles can come in a range of colours and materials depending on your interior and the general aesthetic of your room. You can get solid oak door bars, which then come in various shades like lights, darks, greys, etc. Then you can get metal ones, most commonly in the gold and silver colours. These tend to be the go-to options as it is generally recommended that you match your profiles to the colour of your door handles. This is because if you try to match the door profile with the colour of your floor, you will struggle to find an exact colour match, as flooring manufacturers do not make their own door profiles, so you run the risk of it looking discoloured.
uPVC Windows Profile Options
uPVC windows profile come in various shapes, sizes and colour options. The different uPVC systems are suitable for both domestic and light commercial use. Once you have made the decision to purchase new uPVC windows, the cost will be determined by a number of factors:
Number of windows and doors required
Size of windows and doors required
Colour and profile type, also called the system chosen
Choice of glass, whether double glazing or triple glazing for uPVC windows
Specification of glass, e.g. toughened, laminated, decorative etc.
Hardware options, handle type and colour for example
Cost of installation if not supply only
Other personal preferences
uPVC Profile Options
There are various uPVC windows profiles available for you to choose. The profile type, also referred to as the system, determines what the finished window looks like. Here, we we are concentrating on the profile options that Deceuninck extrude. We use these profiles to manufacture our uPVC windows and doors. The profile types are:
Chamfered (referred to by Deceuninck as Traditional 2500 Series)
Sculptured (referred to by Deceuninck as Heritage 2800 Series)
Flush (2800 referred to by Deceunick as Heritage Flush Sash)
Why choose a Deceuninck profile? Deceuninck are a leading extruder of premium PVCu products. They are renowned in the industry for quality and excellence.
We cover in more detail what the main differences are below, but to summarise:
Chamfered (2500) sash windows offer a similar look to sculptured but with a sharper looking detail
Sculptured (2800) sash windows on any outward opening window stand proud of the frame, overlapping it all around
Flush casement windows have the opening sashes sitting within the frame and flush with the outside and inside face of the window
uPVC Product Options
Deceuninck Chamfered (2500) and Sculptured (2800) series profile can be used for:
Casement Windows
Tilt & Turns
Residential Doors
Patio Doors
Painted Windows
Angled/Arched Frames
If you require the uPVC Casement Flush Sash, this is only available in Deceuninck 2800 series profile.
What is the Difference Between Extruded Aluminum and Cast Aluminum?
Aluminum is an extremely versatile metal in that it is a great candidate for a wide range of manufacturing methods, two of which are extrusion and casting. You might find yourself asking, “What is the difference between extruding and casting of aluminum?” Extrusion is a process by which aluminum billets are forced through a die, resulting in a desired cross section. Whereas, casting is a process in which molten aluminum is poured into a mold and then allowed to solidify. Each method of manufacturing aluminum parts has both its advantages and disadvantages, but both offer a savings over machining the part from a solid by creating a near net shape and reducing machining time. Whether you think you need aluminum extrusions or are considering aluminum castings, you can count on the team at Howard Precision Metals to point you in the right direction.
Extrusion: An Economical Manufacturing Process
Aluminum extrusion is a generally competitive and economical production option especially when dealing with very complex cross-sections. A new design of a custom shape aluminum extrusion can be produced in as little as 8 weeks. Such shapes and features that can be extruded are: press and snap, sliding fits, tongue and groove, self-tapping screw boss holes, hinges, snap-fit joints, flanges, screw ports, anti-skid surfaces, and much, much more. Initial costs of extrusions are attractive as well. Die engineering fees for new custom shapes are much less than when compared to castings. Extruded aluminum shapes are also produced with an excellent surface finish and are typically stronger in comparison. Some products produced by the extrusion process are heat sinks, window and door frames, manifolds, and lighting track equipment. The possibilites are endless. A disadvantage of extrusion when compared to casting is the size constraint. Aluminum extrusions are limited by the size of both the billet and the capacity of the cylinder on the extrusion press. Castings have no such limit and are often used to produce very large items. Even with the size limitations of extrusions, there are still a myriad of applications of which this method of manufacture is the preferred choice.
Aluminum Casting
Aluminum can be cast using any of the available casting methods. Some of these casting methods are continuous casting, investment casting, plaster casting, sand casting, permanent mold casting, and die casting. Additional casting processes such as hot and isostatic pressing, squeeze casting, and lost foam are also possible with molten aluminum. Despite the different names and methods, all casting has one thing in common: Molten aluminum is poured into a mold that makes a pattern when the aluminum is cooled. When compared to extrusion, casting is a much slower process. Seams and mold imperfections can also be present in cast parts. This often requires a secondary process, known as fettling, to be necessary to remove such imperfections by cutting, grinding, or sanding. Nonetheless, casting still has its place in manufacturing. Casting of aluminum is a very common manufacturing method of such products as cookware, small appliance components, or decorative parts. The most common and largest market for aluminum castings is in the automotive industry. More than half of the aluminum used in cars is produced by casting.

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  Choose the right chair for your workspace at hom
Posté par : DFDVX125 - Aujourd’hui, - Forum : Présentez-vous... - Pas de réponse

Choose the right chair for your workspace at home
Work from home is the new normal!
Mostly everyone is working from home nowadays hence creating a comfortable and productive workplace has never been so important. People make the mistake of underestimating this task and instead of looking for a good ergonomic chair, they go for the cheapest one. The drawback of this mindset is not just that low-quality cheap products require to be replaced more frequently but it's the bad chairs lead to several health problems and also loss of work productivity and efficiency.
A chair on its own is not enough. It has to be individualized as per the anthropometry of the individual and also with the height of the table and the lighting of the workspace. If we go by the calculations one will get to know that we all spend a lot of time working hence you need to buy the right chair for both office and home.
Let's know some of the reasons behind it.
Reasons why you need the right ergonomic office chair –
To maintain comfort and good health.
The best chair is the one on which you can sit for long hours without discomfort or pain. Some chairs will seem to be fine at first but by the end of the day, the pain in the back will speak for itself.
If your chair isn't right, it will affect your sitting posture and it will cause serious health issues.
THE RIGHT ERGONOMIC CHAIR SHOULD–
Keep your feet flat
Provide a little gap between the back of your knee and the front edge of the chair
Allow your knees to be a little lower than the level of your hips
Allow you to change positions
It is always said prevention is always better than cure. Good ergonomic chairs are designed by keeping the individual body in mind which provides comfort with proper lumbar support. According to the studies it has been found that lack of lumbar support leads to pressure and strain on the muscles and reduction of blood flow in spinal tissue damaging the disc and pinched nerves in the back.
Chairs with lumbar support avoid this situation by maintaining proper blood circulation which promotes comfort and provides correct posture that in turn makes you healthy and reduces back issues.
Gaming Chairs: Are They Good For Your Back And Posture?
There is a lot of buzz around gaming chairs, but are gaming chairs good for your back? Besides the flamboyant looks, how do these chairs help? This post discusses how gaming chairs provide support to the back leading to an improved posture and for better work performance. It also discusses how having better posture means overall wellbeing in the long run.
Sitting in cheap office chairs for a prolonged period leads to poor posture. Poor posture also affects your mood. A bad posture affects the position of your bones, muscles, and internal organs in the body. This exerts pressure on your muscles and tendons, leading to conditions that can be hard to reverse. You may experience trouble sitting for long hours or even sitting at all.
Slouching also causes breathing problems, stiffness in the joints, and poor circulation. All of this can lead to chronic fatigue. It is a major concern, given the modern sedentary lifestyles. The journey of our ancestors from hunter-gatherers to farmers resulted in decreased mobility and lower limb strength. Today, an average American spends 13 hours sitting and 8 hours sleeping per day; 21 hours of sedentary time.
A sedentary lifestyle is bad for your back, but it’s an inevitable outcome of modern work.
It’s true that sitting for too long is bad for your back regardless of the kind of chair you use, but a cheap office chair increases the likelihood of health risks in two ways.
Cheap chairs encourage sloppy sitting habits ii. A saggy spine causes severe strain on the neck, back, and shoulders.
Besides having a comfortable sitting experience, gaming chairs also provide support to your back, neck, and shoulders.
Unlike the office chairs, gaming chairs are ergonomically designed, keeping in view the sedentary lifestyle. Even the padded chairs may do no service. A well-built gaming chair supports your lower and upper back, shoulders, head, neck, arms, and hips.
A good gaming chair helps to maintain the correct posture. When your head is correctly positioned, the strain is taken off your neck. Also, properly aligned spine reduces the back pain. When your hips are in the right posture, you can comfortably sit for long periods of time.
Sit Back, It's Better for Your Back
A new study suggests that sitting upright for hours at a time -- for example, when working at a computer -- may lead to chronic back pain. Instead, the best position for your back is somewhat reclined, sitting at a 135-degree angle rather than the 90-degree angle most office chairs are designed for.
"A 135-degree body-thigh sitting posture was demonstrated to be the best biomechanical sitting position, as opposed to a 90-degree posture, which most people consider normal," says researcher Waseem Amir Bashir, MBChB, clinical fellow in the department of radiology and diagnostic imaging at the University of Alberta Hospital, Canada, in a news release. "Sitting in a sound anatomic position is essential, since the strain put on the spine and its associated ligaments over time can lead to pain, deformity and chronic illness."
Bashir presented the results of the study this week at the annual meeting of the Radiological Society of North America in Chicago.
Comparing Sitting Positions
Back pain is one of the most common causes of work-related disability in the U.S. and helping to identify bad seating postures may help protect the spine and prevent injury.
Using "positional" magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) researchers studied the sitting positions of 22 healthy volunteers with no history of back pain. The MRI machine allowed freedom of motion, such as sitting or standing, during imaging. Conventional MRI machines require the patient to lie flat and may mask some causes of back pain.
Researchers used the MRI to examine spinal positioning while the participants assumed three different sitting positions: slouching forward (such as hunched over a desk or video game console), an upright 90-degree sitting position, and a relaxed position with the back reclined backward about 135 degrees while the feet were still on the floor.
What Is a Lift Chair?
A lift chair is a recliner-style seat that uses a motor to help a person safely and easily get out of it from a seated position. The powerlifting mechanism inside pushes the entire chair up from its base to assist the user to stand up. While it might sound like a luxury, for many people, it's a necessity.
Lift chairs can also help seniors sit down from the standing position safely and comfortably. “For seniors who struggle to stand up or sit down, this [assistance] can help decrease pain and potentially ease anxiety,” says Josie Rhoades, vice president of clinical operations at BrightStar Care, a national private-duty home care and medical staff franchise. Seniors who struggle to sit or stand on their own can end up overly relying on their arms and may end up slipping or harming themselves.
The reclining positions of lift chairs also provide benefits. “Seniors often require the use of a lift chair because the chair’s lifting and reclining positions help elevate their legs to reduce the excess buildup of fluid and improves circulation in their legs,” says Rhoades.
Types of Lift Chairs
According to Rhoades, there are three main types of lift chairs:
Two-position. The most basic option, this lift chair reclines to a 45-degree angle, allowing the person seated to lean back slightly. It contains one motor, which controls the chair's lifting capabilities, reclining capabilities and the footrest. “When the backrest reclines, the footrest must extend,” says Rhoades. “They cannot operate independently of each other.” These chairs are generally used for watching television and/or reading, and they don’t take up too much space.
Three-position. This lift chair reclines further to an almost flat position. It is powered by one motor, which means the footrest doesn't operate independently of the backrest. “The person seated will be positioned in a slight ‘V’ formation at the hips with the backrest reclined and their knees and feet higher than their hips,” says Rhoades. Because it reclines so far, this chair is ideal for napping and helpful for seniors who aren't able to sleep lying flat in a bed.
Infinite position. The most versatile (and typically the most expensive) option, an infinite position lift chair offers a full recline with both the backrest and the footrest parallel to the floor. “Infinite position lift chairs usually contain two motors,” says Rhoades. “The first motor typically controls the backrest, and the other controls the footrest, allowing for seniors to be properly positioned in seated position with their legs extended in front.” Before buying an infinite position lift chair (sometimes called a zero-gravity chair), consult with your doctor, as it's not safe for some seniors to be in this position.
What Wood Is Best for Chair Making?
Chairs can be built from any wood available. For fine furniture, the hardwoods are the best choice, but some of the most comfortable chairs are built from some of the softest woods. Some of the hardwood chairs take special blades, while most of the softer woods can be used with any tools available to the handyman. If you are going to build a mission-style chair, use hardwood. For an Adirondack-style chair, go with soft.
For traditional strength and longevity, no other wood lasts like oak. It has a tight grain pattern that is somewhat chaotic. This means that it is unlikely to split down the grain pattern. It's not prone to shrinking as much as other semi-hard woods, and has that familiar look of fine furniture.
There are two species most commonly used to make oak chairs — American red oak and American white oak, with white oak being the harder with a tighter grain. These hardness characteristics can also mean that it is harder to work with.
Chairs Made of Mahogany
The availability of mahogany worldwide makes it an obvious choice for making chairs. Bassett Furniture notes that this wood is lighter in weight than some other types of wood, but it is strong as oak.
Mahogany's warm colors and semi-soft texture make it easy to work with. It is straight grained, blends well and is reasonably stable due to straight-grain patterns that are usually laminated, making a mahogany chair almost split proof. Mahogany grows on every continent, therefore, there are probably more mahogany chairs in the world than any other specific wood.
Chairs Made of Maple
Maple has an extremely tight grain pattern that is also chaotic like oak. On a hardness scale maple is the second hardest domestic hardwood available, second only to birch, which is rarely used for furniture.
Maple has a warm, light-colored glow that makes it great for chairs, but only the sharpest, carbide-tip saws and drill bits are recommended for milling maple. Glue will sometimes fail to adhere to the smooth, hard surface on the inside of dowel holes. Care and patience need to be applied when building a chair out of maple.

http://www.yamicity.com

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  Choose the right chair for your workspace at home
Posté par : DFDVX125 - Aujourd’hui, - Forum : Présentez-vous... - Pas de réponse

Choose the right chair for your workspace at home
Work from home is the new normal!
Mostly everyone is working from home nowadays hence creating a comfortable and productive workplace has never been so important. People make the mistake of underestimating this task and instead of looking for a good ergonomic chair, they go for the cheapest one. The drawback of this mindset is not just that low-quality cheap products require to be replaced more frequently but it's the bad chairs lead to several health problems and also loss of work productivity and efficiency.
A chair on its own is not enough. It has to be individualized as per the anthropometry of the individual and also with the height of the table and the lighting of the workspace. If we go by the calculations one will get to know that we all spend a lot of time working hence you need to buy the right chair for both office and home.
Let's know some of the reasons behind it.
Reasons why you need the right ergonomic office chair –
To maintain comfort and good health.
The best chair is the one on which you can sit for long hours without discomfort or pain. Some chairs will seem to be fine at first but by the end of the day, the pain in the back will speak for itself.
If your chair isn't right, it will affect your sitting posture and it will cause serious health issues.
THE RIGHT ERGONOMIC CHAIR SHOULD–
Keep your feet flat
Provide a little gap between the back of your knee and the front edge of the chair
Allow your knees to be a little lower than the level of your hips
Allow you to change positions
It is always said prevention is always better than cure. Good ergonomic chairs are designed by keeping the individual body in mind which provides comfort with proper lumbar support. According to the studies it has been found that lack of lumbar support leads to pressure and strain on the muscles and reduction of blood flow in spinal tissue damaging the disc and pinched nerves in the back.
Chairs with lumbar support avoid this situation by maintaining proper blood circulation which promotes comfort and provides correct posture that in turn makes you healthy and reduces back issues.
Gaming Chairs: Are They Good For Your Back And Posture?
There is a lot of buzz around gaming chairs, but are gaming chairs good for your back? Besides the flamboyant looks, how do these chairs help? This post discusses how gaming chairs provide support to the back leading to an improved posture and for better work performance. It also discusses how having better posture means overall wellbeing in the long run.
Sitting in cheap office chairs for a prolonged period leads to poor posture. Poor posture also affects your mood. A bad posture affects the position of your bones, muscles, and internal organs in the body. This exerts pressure on your muscles and tendons, leading to conditions that can be hard to reverse. You may experience trouble sitting for long hours or even sitting at all.
Slouching also causes breathing problems, stiffness in the joints, and poor circulation. All of this can lead to chronic fatigue. It is a major concern, given the modern sedentary lifestyles. The journey of our ancestors from hunter-gatherers to farmers resulted in decreased mobility and lower limb strength. Today, an average American spends 13 hours sitting and 8 hours sleeping per day; 21 hours of sedentary time.
A sedentary lifestyle is bad for your back, but it’s an inevitable outcome of modern work.
It’s true that sitting for too long is bad for your back regardless of the kind of chair you use, but a cheap office chair increases the likelihood of health risks in two ways.
Cheap chairs encourage sloppy sitting habits ii. A saggy spine causes severe strain on the neck, back, and shoulders.
Besides having a comfortable sitting experience, gaming chairs also provide support to your back, neck, and shoulders.
Unlike the office chairs, gaming chairs are ergonomically designed, keeping in view the sedentary lifestyle. Even the padded chairs may do no service. A well-built gaming chair supports your lower and upper back, shoulders, head, neck, arms, and hips.
A good gaming chair helps to maintain the correct posture. When your head is correctly positioned, the strain is taken off your neck. Also, properly aligned spine reduces the back pain. When your hips are in the right posture, you can comfortably sit for long periods of time.
Sit Back, It's Better for Your Back
A new study suggests that sitting upright for hours at a time -- for example, when working at a computer -- may lead to chronic back pain. Instead, the best position for your back is somewhat reclined, sitting at a 135-degree angle rather than the 90-degree angle most office chairs are designed for.
"A 135-degree body-thigh sitting posture was demonstrated to be the best biomechanical sitting position, as opposed to a 90-degree posture, which most people consider normal," says researcher Waseem Amir Bashir, MBChB, clinical fellow in the department of radiology and diagnostic imaging at the University of Alberta Hospital, Canada, in a news release. "Sitting in a sound anatomic position is essential, since the strain put on the spine and its associated ligaments over time can lead to pain, deformity and chronic illness."
Bashir presented the results of the study this week at the annual meeting of the Radiological Society of North America in Chicago.
Comparing Sitting Positions
Back pain is one of the most common causes of work-related disability in the U.S. and helping to identify bad seating postures may help protect the spine and prevent injury.
Using "positional" magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) researchers studied the sitting positions of 22 healthy volunteers with no history of back pain. The MRI machine allowed freedom of motion, such as sitting or standing, during imaging. Conventional MRI machines require the patient to lie flat and may mask some causes of back pain.
Researchers used the MRI to examine spinal positioning while the participants assumed three different sitting positions: slouching forward (such as hunched over a desk or video game console), an upright 90-degree sitting position, and a relaxed position with the back reclined backward about 135 degrees while the feet were still on the floor.
What Is a Lift Chair?
A lift chair is a recliner-style seat that uses a motor to help a person safely and easily get out of it from a seated position. The powerlifting mechanism inside pushes the entire chair up from its base to assist the user to stand up. While it might sound like a luxury, for many people, it's a necessity.
Lift chairs can also help seniors sit down from the standing position safely and comfortably. “For seniors who struggle to stand up or sit down, this [assistance] can help decrease pain and potentially ease anxiety,” says Josie Rhoades, vice president of clinical operations at BrightStar Care, a national private-duty home care and medical staff franchise. Seniors who struggle to sit or stand on their own can end up overly relying on their arms and may end up slipping or harming themselves.
The reclining positions of lift chairs also provide benefits. “Seniors often require the use of a lift chair because the chair’s lifting and reclining positions help elevate their legs to reduce the excess buildup of fluid and improves circulation in their legs,” says Rhoades.
Types of Lift Chairs
According to Rhoades, there are three main types of lift chairs:
Two-position. The most basic option, this lift chair reclines to a 45-degree angle, allowing the person seated to lean back slightly. It contains one motor, which controls the chair's lifting capabilities, reclining capabilities and the footrest. “When the backrest reclines, the footrest must extend,” says Rhoades. “They cannot operate independently of each other.” These chairs are generally used for watching television and/or reading, and they don’t take up too much space.
Three-position. This lift chair reclines further to an almost flat position. It is powered by one motor, which means the footrest doesn't operate independently of the backrest. “The person seated will be positioned in a slight ‘V’ formation at the hips with the backrest reclined and their knees and feet higher than their hips,” says Rhoades. Because it reclines so far, this chair is ideal for napping and helpful for seniors who aren't able to sleep lying flat in a bed.
Infinite position. The most versatile (and typically the most expensive) option, an infinite position lift chair offers a full recline with both the backrest and the footrest parallel to the floor. “Infinite position lift chairs usually contain two motors,” says Rhoades. “The first motor typically controls the backrest, and the other controls the footrest, allowing for seniors to be properly positioned in seated position with their legs extended in front.” Before buying an infinite position lift chair (sometimes called a zero-gravity chair), consult with your doctor, as it's not safe for some seniors to be in this position.
What Wood Is Best for Chair Making?
Chairs can be built from any wood available. For fine furniture, the hardwoods are the best choice, but some of the most comfortable chairs are built from some of the softest woods. Some of the hardwood chairs take special blades, while most of the softer woods can be used with any tools available to the handyman. If you are going to build a mission-style chair, use hardwood. For an Adirondack-style chair, go with soft.
For traditional strength and longevity, no other wood lasts like oak. It has a tight grain pattern that is somewhat chaotic. This means that it is unlikely to split down the grain pattern. It's not prone to shrinking as much as other semi-hard woods, and has that familiar look of fine furniture.
There are two species most commonly used to make oak chairs — American red oak and American white oak, with white oak being the harder with a tighter grain. These hardness characteristics can also mean that it is harder to work with.
Chairs Made of Mahogany
The availability of mahogany worldwide makes it an obvious choice for making chairs. Bassett Furniture notes that this wood is lighter in weight than some other types of wood, but it is strong as oak.
Mahogany's warm colors and semi-soft texture make it easy to work with. It is straight grained, blends well and is reasonably stable due to straight-grain patterns that are usually laminated, making a mahogany chair almost split proof. Mahogany grows on every continent, therefore, there are probably more mahogany chairs in the world than any other specific wood.
Chairs Made of Maple
Maple has an extremely tight grain pattern that is also chaotic like oak. On a hardness scale maple is the second hardest domestic hardwood available, second only to birch, which is rarely used for furniture.
Maple has a warm, light-colored glow that makes it great for chairs, but only the sharpest, carbide-tip saws and drill bits are recommended for milling maple. Glue will sometimes fail to adhere to the smooth, hard surface on the inside of dowel holes. Care and patience need to be applied when building a chair out of maple.

http://www.yamicity.com

Imprimer cet élément

  Best Motorcycle Grips: Add Some Comfort to Your Ride
Posté par : DFDVX125 - Aujourd’hui, - Forum : Présentez-vous... - Pas de réponse

Best Motorcycle Grips: Add Some Comfort to Your Ride
Motorcycle grips are essential for comfortable and safe riding, especially on long trips. If you don't have the right grips on your bike, it's time to find the perfect pair.
Benefits of Motorcycle Grips
Wrist and hand comfort. Some say that the numbness you feel in your hands is from the vibration or poor circulation. The right grips can cushion your grip and give your hands comfort.
Control. Depending on the type of aftermarket grips you buy, you can improve the control you have over your throttle. The right grips will prevent your hand from slipping.
Style. Changing out your stock grips for aftermarket ones is about more than comfort. You can choose a set of grips that can enhance the look of your bike. You could choose chrome accents or a color that matches your bike.
Types of Motorcycle Grips
ISO GRIPS
These grips are ideal for long-distance riding or bikes that have a lot of vibration through the motorcycle handlebars. They’re designed with vibration-isolating features that will relieve the pressure transferred through your hands.
BILLET RUBBER GRIPS
These are the most common types of grips with varying combinations of rubber and metal. They’re typically anodized and come in a wide variety of color schemes. These grips will give you the ideal combination of functionality and style.
HEATED GRIPS
If you like to ride in cold climates, then heated grips will be a lifesaver. These grips come with special wiring that will connect to your motorcycle battery. You can then change the temperature of your handlebar grips throughout the seasons.
How do you rebuild a carburetor?
There's heartache and joy that come with owning, and caring for, an older vehicle. It's helpful if you can sort out a number of problems on your own, it will save you cash and trips to your local mechanic. One of the more seemingly puzzling aspects of old-car ownership occurs when you drive a carbureted vehicle. Hagerty is here to demystify the deliverer of air and fuel for you.
The best way to familiarize yourself with any car part is to disassemble it. So the first part of Hagerty's two-part video guide involves a walkthrough of a carburetor teardown. There are floats, jets, needles, valves, and springs all waiting for your venture into the world of your carb. You don't need of tools to get started, just a few pliers and screwdrivers should get you moving. And a bottle of carb cleaner will get plenty of usage as well.
If you're going to tear down and rebuild your carburetor, you'll want a simple rebuild kit handy. A proper kit includes all of the diaphragms, seals, needles, seats, and more.
As you tear down the carb, you'll find parts that are either due for replacement or just need a simple cleanup. That's the beauty of a carb rebuild. Once properly addressed, and the carb rebuilt, your car will be running better than ever.
Once you have the carb completely broken down and cleaned up, it's time to crack open the rebuild kit and put everything back together. It's an entertaining puzzle, but a puzzle that makes more and more sense every time you tinker with it.
These two videos serve as a great guide for carburetor rebuilding. While we love the Hagerty time lapse videos, it's also nice to see one that's teaching us as well.
How it works: Brakes
If you've ever experienced brake fade or, god forbid, brake failure, you'll have an appreciation of just how important it is that brakes work consistently. Here are the basic principles and components for modern brakes – and by that we mean hydraulic ones, with discs not drums.
It's all about hydraulics
Modern motorcycle brakes work by transferring movement and force at the lever through an incompressible liquid to the caliper pistons, which then press the brake pads against the disc. For that force to be transferred efficiently, the brake lines must not expand, there must be no leaks and the fluid must not compress. If any of those happen, you get spongey-feeling brakes, or indeed no brakes. Gulp.
There are pistons at each end
The brake lever operates a piston, which operates as a plunger in what's called the master cylinder. Both are housed in the casting that holds the brake lever. A master cylinder piston is pretty small - around 10-20mm in diameter. The pistons at the other end, in the calipers, are much bigger – around 25-50mm. Why the different sizes? That leads us to…
Forces are amplified
The first way that forces are amplified are at the lever itself. This is purely mechanical – if your fingers are 10cm from the pivot point, and the master cylinder piston is 2cm the other side, then forces will be magnified 5 times, but there will be five times less movement. Then there's amplification due to piston sizes. The smaller the master cylinder piston, the more pressure it will apply to the system for a given force at the lever. If that sounds counter-intuitive, imagine your foot being trodden on by someone wearing a stiletto heel. It'll be a lot more painful than if they're wearing a broad shoe. The pressure in the system is then transferred to the caliper pistons, and the force they generate depends on the ratio of the areas of the piston faces. So let's say the master cylinder piston has a diameter of 15mm, meaning its area is 177mm squared. Our caliper piston has a diameter of 25mm, giving a surface area of 1964mm squared. So the force is multiplied 11 times. Combine that with the lever, and in this case you're magnifying the force 55 times. And that's just with one caliper piston. On a modern front end there are usually four pistons in each caliper, and there are two of those. That gives a 440 times force multiplication in our example. No wonder you can use two fingers to make the bike stand on its nose.
Changing piston sizes changes everything
A smaller master cylinder piston will apply more pressure and create more braking force but it will move less fluid, so the lever will have to move further to move the caliper pistons enough make the pads grip the discs. That means there is a limit to how small you can go with master cylinder pistons, and how big the caliper pistons can be. Also, big caliper pistons mean you need big discs (check out a cruiser rear brake), which are heavy.
Different size caliper pistons are a good idea
Many modern four-piston calipers have two smaller pistons. This is to increase feel. The smaller pistons will move further than the larger ones and therefore push the brake pad before the others join in.
Caliper design has changed
There have been two main caliper innovations in the last couple of decades. Radial calipers (named because they are attached by bolts which radiate from the wheel centre, rather than laterally from a mounting bracket) are stiffer and perform better under extreme conditions, such as racing. For 99% of us, they make no difference. Monoblock calipers, as the name suggest, are made from one lump of metal, rather than two bolted together. This eradicates the tiny amount of flex between the two halves of a normal caliper and in theory gives better feel. Again, most of us can't ride hard enough to notice the difference.
What is a carburetor?
Gasoline engines are designed to take in exactly the right amount of air so the fuel burns properly, whether the engine is starting from cold or running hot at top speed. Getting the fuel-air mixture just right is the job of a clever mechanical gadget called a carburetor: a tube that allows air and fuel into the engine through valves, mixing them together in different amounts to suit a wide range of different driving conditions.
You might think "carburetor" is quite a weird word, but it comes from the verb "carburet." That's a chemical term meaning to enrich a gas by combining it with carbon or hydrocarbons. So, technically, a carburetor is a device that saturates air (the gas) with fuel (the hydrocarbon).
Carburetors have been around since the late 19th century when they were first developed by automobile pioneer (and Mercedes founder) Karl Benz (1844–1929). There were earlier attempts at "carbureting" in other ways. For example, the French engine pioneer Joseph Étienne Lenoir (1822–1900) originally used a rotating cylinder with sponges attached that dipped into fuel as they turned around, lifting it out of its container and mixing it into the air as they did so.
The diagram below, which I've colored to make it easier to follow, shows the original Benz carburetor design from 1888; the basic working principle (explained in the box below) remains the same to this day.
How does it work?
Air flows into the top of the carburetor from the car's air intake, passing through a filter that cleans it of debris.
When the engine is first started, the choke (blue) can be set so it almost blocks the top of the pipe to reduce the amount of air coming in (increasing the fuel content of the mixture entering the cylinders).
In the center of the tube, the air is forced through a narrow kink called a venturi. This makes it speed up and causes its pressure to drop.
The drop in air pressure creates suction on the fuel pipe (right), drawing in fuel (orange).
The throttle (green) is a valve that swivels to open or close the pipe. When the throttle is open, more air and fuel flows to the cylinders so the engine produces more power and the car goes faster.
The mixture of air and fuel flows down into the cylinders.
Fuel (orange) is supplied from a mini-fuel tank called the float-feed chamber.
As the fuel level falls, a float in the chamber falls and opens a valve at the top.
When the valve opens, more fuel flows in to replenish the chamber from the main gas tank. This makes the float rise and close the valve again.

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  Best Motorcycle Grips: Add Some Comfort to Your Ride
Posté par : DFDVX125 - Aujourd’hui, - Forum : Présentez-vous... - Pas de réponse

Best Motorcycle Grips: Add Some Comfort to Your Ride
Motorcycle grips are essential for comfortable and safe riding, especially on long trips. If you don't have the right grips on your bike, it's time to find the perfect pair.
Benefits of Motorcycle Grips
Wrist and hand comfort. Some say that the numbness you feel in your hands is from the vibration or poor circulation. The right grips can cushion your grip and give your hands comfort.
Control. Depending on the type of aftermarket grips you buy, you can improve the control you have over your throttle. The right grips will prevent your hand from slipping.
Style. Changing out your stock grips for aftermarket ones is about more than comfort. You can choose a set of grips that can enhance the look of your bike. You could choose chrome accents or a color that matches your bike.
Types of Motorcycle Grips
ISO GRIPS
These grips are ideal for long-distance riding or bikes that have a lot of vibration through the motorcycle handlebars. They’re designed with vibration-isolating features that will relieve the pressure transferred through your hands.
BILLET RUBBER GRIPS
These are the most common types of grips with varying combinations of rubber and metal. They’re typically anodized and come in a wide variety of color schemes. These grips will give you the ideal combination of functionality and style.
HEATED GRIPS
If you like to ride in cold climates, then heated grips will be a lifesaver. These grips come with special wiring that will connect to your motorcycle battery. You can then change the temperature of your handlebar grips throughout the seasons.
How do you rebuild a carburetor?
There's heartache and joy that come with owning, and caring for, an older vehicle. It's helpful if you can sort out a number of problems on your own, it will save you cash and trips to your local mechanic. One of the more seemingly puzzling aspects of old-car ownership occurs when you drive a carbureted vehicle. Hagerty is here to demystify the deliverer of air and fuel for you.
The best way to familiarize yourself with any car part is to disassemble it. So the first part of Hagerty's two-part video guide involves a walkthrough of a carburetor teardown. There are floats, jets, needles, valves, and springs all waiting for your venture into the world of your carb. You don't need of tools to get started, just a few pliers and screwdrivers should get you moving. And a bottle of carb cleaner will get plenty of usage as well.
If you're going to tear down and rebuild your carburetor, you'll want a simple rebuild kit handy. A proper kit includes all of the diaphragms, seals, needles, seats, and more.
As you tear down the carb, you'll find parts that are either due for replacement or just need a simple cleanup. That's the beauty of a carb rebuild. Once properly addressed, and the carb rebuilt, your car will be running better than ever.
Once you have the carb completely broken down and cleaned up, it's time to crack open the rebuild kit and put everything back together. It's an entertaining puzzle, but a puzzle that makes more and more sense every time you tinker with it.
These two videos serve as a great guide for carburetor rebuilding. While we love the Hagerty time lapse videos, it's also nice to see one that's teaching us as well.
How it works: Brakes
If you've ever experienced brake fade or, god forbid, brake failure, you'll have an appreciation of just how important it is that brakes work consistently. Here are the basic principles and components for modern brakes – and by that we mean hydraulic ones, with discs not drums.
It's all about hydraulics
Modern motorcycle brakes work by transferring movement and force at the lever through an incompressible liquid to the caliper pistons, which then press the brake pads against the disc. For that force to be transferred efficiently, the brake lines must not expand, there must be no leaks and the fluid must not compress. If any of those happen, you get spongey-feeling brakes, or indeed no brakes. Gulp.
There are pistons at each end
The brake lever operates a piston, which operates as a plunger in what's called the master cylinder. Both are housed in the casting that holds the brake lever. A master cylinder piston is pretty small - around 10-20mm in diameter. The pistons at the other end, in the calipers, are much bigger – around 25-50mm. Why the different sizes? That leads us to…
Forces are amplified
The first way that forces are amplified are at the lever itself. This is purely mechanical – if your fingers are 10cm from the pivot point, and the master cylinder piston is 2cm the other side, then forces will be magnified 5 times, but there will be five times less movement. Then there's amplification due to piston sizes. The smaller the master cylinder piston, the more pressure it will apply to the system for a given force at the lever. If that sounds counter-intuitive, imagine your foot being trodden on by someone wearing a stiletto heel. It'll be a lot more painful than if they're wearing a broad shoe. The pressure in the system is then transferred to the caliper pistons, and the force they generate depends on the ratio of the areas of the piston faces. So let's say the master cylinder piston has a diameter of 15mm, meaning its area is 177mm squared. Our caliper piston has a diameter of 25mm, giving a surface area of 1964mm squared. So the force is multiplied 11 times. Combine that with the lever, and in this case you're magnifying the force 55 times. And that's just with one caliper piston. On a modern front end there are usually four pistons in each caliper, and there are two of those. That gives a 440 times force multiplication in our example. No wonder you can use two fingers to make the bike stand on its nose.
Changing piston sizes changes everything
A smaller master cylinder piston will apply more pressure and create more braking force but it will move less fluid, so the lever will have to move further to move the caliper pistons enough make the pads grip the discs. That means there is a limit to how small you can go with master cylinder pistons, and how big the caliper pistons can be. Also, big caliper pistons mean you need big discs (check out a cruiser rear brake), which are heavy.
Different size caliper pistons are a good idea
Many modern four-piston calipers have two smaller pistons. This is to increase feel. The smaller pistons will move further than the larger ones and therefore push the brake pad before the others join in.
Caliper design has changed
There have been two main caliper innovations in the last couple of decades. Radial calipers (named because they are attached by bolts which radiate from the wheel centre, rather than laterally from a mounting bracket) are stiffer and perform better under extreme conditions, such as racing. For 99% of us, they make no difference. Monoblock calipers, as the name suggest, are made from one lump of metal, rather than two bolted together. This eradicates the tiny amount of flex between the two halves of a normal caliper and in theory gives better feel. Again, most of us can't ride hard enough to notice the difference.
What is a carburetor?
Gasoline engines are designed to take in exactly the right amount of air so the fuel burns properly, whether the engine is starting from cold or running hot at top speed. Getting the fuel-air mixture just right is the job of a clever mechanical gadget called a carburetor: a tube that allows air and fuel into the engine through valves, mixing them together in different amounts to suit a wide range of different driving conditions.
You might think "carburetor" is quite a weird word, but it comes from the verb "carburet." That's a chemical term meaning to enrich a gas by combining it with carbon or hydrocarbons. So, technically, a carburetor is a device that saturates air (the gas) with fuel (the hydrocarbon).
Carburetors have been around since the late 19th century when they were first developed by automobile pioneer (and Mercedes founder) Karl Benz (1844–1929). There were earlier attempts at "carbureting" in other ways. For example, the French engine pioneer Joseph Étienne Lenoir (1822–1900) originally used a rotating cylinder with sponges attached that dipped into fuel as they turned around, lifting it out of its container and mixing it into the air as they did so.
The diagram below, which I've colored to make it easier to follow, shows the original Benz carburetor design from 1888; the basic working principle (explained in the box below) remains the same to this day.
How does it work?
Air flows into the top of the carburetor from the car's air intake, passing through a filter that cleans it of debris.
When the engine is first started, the choke (blue) can be set so it almost blocks the top of the pipe to reduce the amount of air coming in (increasing the fuel content of the mixture entering the cylinders).
In the center of the tube, the air is forced through a narrow kink called a venturi. This makes it speed up and causes its pressure to drop.
The drop in air pressure creates suction on the fuel pipe (right), drawing in fuel (orange).
The throttle (green) is a valve that swivels to open or close the pipe. When the throttle is open, more air and fuel flows to the cylinders so the engine produces more power and the car goes faster.
The mixture of air and fuel flows down into the cylinders.
Fuel (orange) is supplied from a mini-fuel tank called the float-feed chamber.
As the fuel level falls, a float in the chamber falls and opens a valve at the top.
When the valve opens, more fuel flows in to replenish the chamber from the main gas tank. This makes the float rise and close the valve again.

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  What's The Difference Between Shirt And T-shirt?
Posté par : DFDVX125 - Aujourd’hui, - Forum : Présentez-vous... - Pas de réponse

What's The Difference Between Shirt And T-shirt?
Tshirts and shirts are two different terms often used interchangeably, but what is the difference between a shirt and a T-shirt?
A shirt can be a short-sleeved or long-sleeved garment for the upper body. T-shirts for men are usually made of cotton and have shorter sleeves than a shirt. Shirts come in many different styles, colours, patterns, and fabrics, while T-shirts typically only come in one style with no pattern options.
With shirts for men, you can choose the type of fabric (cotton vs polyester), style (long-sleeved shirt or short-sleeve shirts), colour, and pattern. You also have a lot more options with shirts than t-shirts in terms of how they fit on your body because shirts typically come with two parts that are sewn together.
A T-shirt is a short-sleeved shirt, typically made of cotton or polyester and sometimes fleece, with no pockets on the front that usually has a design printed onto it using various types of ink methods such as screen printing or sublimation.
T-shirts are often worn by professionals for work as nurses because they are seamless and can easily be washed.
How Can You Style Your Shirts and T-shirts?
This is a question for both shirts and t-shirts. When you are looking to style your shirts and/or t-shirts, there are two key elements that should be considered: fabric weight and color palette.
If you want something more on the lightweight side, consider cotton or linen as they can breathe well enough in the warmer months.
If you are looking for a more rugged feel and want to make your shirts or t-shirts last longer, then consider wool shirts or T-shirts that have been treated with special finishes like “water repellent” treatments. These fabrics can also breathe well in the warmer months when used on shirts and could be worn as outerwear.
Conclusion
The difference between shirts and T-shirts is that shirts are typically dressier than casual t-shirts. A shirt can be worn for any occasion, while a t-shirt generally only works well in informal settings. When deciding what to wear in the morning, it’s usually best to go with a shirt versus an undershirt or tank top.
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Stripes in Menswear: Different Types and How to Wear Them
when it comes to the classic patterns of menswear, those based on the simple line–that is to say, stripes–remain just as popular today as they have been for centuries. In this primer, we’ll discuss the different kinds of striped patterns in tailored clothes and show you how to “fall in line” with wearing them well.
Because men typically want to project a serious, businesslike demeanor when wearing tailored clothes, the two most popular pattern styles are not overly ornate, but are based on the simple geometry of the line: one of these styles being checks (which was the topic of a previous article) and the other stripes. These two basic patterns can create greater interest than simply wearing solids while still looking subdued and formal, though there is always the opportunity (or risk!) of making them quite bold.

What are Stripes?
Stripes are a series of parallel lines that do not cross each other. They are found in a variety of orientations in menswear; typically, suits and shirts feature vertical stripes, though horizontally striped garments do exist, as well. Additionally, neckwear and accessories (such as pocket squares or hat bands) may feature stripes in various orientations. Because of the lack of interaction between lines, striped patterns are simpler than checks, which also means they tend to be more reserved, and therefore more formal. Combinations of colors are often used to create differently named patterns, which we will discuss below.
Unbalanced Stripes
Asymmetrically patterned, indicating that the width of the stripe is either narrower or wider than that of the background and/or that the stripes are not spaced evenly. Pinstripes are an example.
Fancy Stripes
Industry jargon for a weave or pattern that does not match any other specific definition; it may still generally be a balanced stripe, in some cases.
Jermyn Stripes (and other “street stripes”)
Rather than a specific type of stripe, this is a broad reference to the style of bright, boldly striped shirt fabrics favored by custom shirtmakers located on or around Jermyn Street in London. Therefore, Jermyn Stripes may describe Bengal stripes, candy stripes, or any other traditional stripe style. Some patterns may also make reference to other well known retail streets in London, such as Bond Street.
There are so many types of strips, this is only a brief introduction.

How To Style A Check Shirt
Checked shirts are popular with everyone, from hipsters to lumberjacks, we all own a check shirt or five. Ranging from casual to slightly smarter, plaid shirts can fit any style and occasion.
A designer check shirt should be a staple in every man's wardrobe. Unlike Hawaiian shirts and jean shorts, your checked shirts will never go out of style, so buying one now is an investment for the indefinite future. Here we'll explain how to pull off all the plaid shirt outfit ideas you'll need for this fashion staple.
THE MATERIAL
Every man needs a plaid shirt that can be comfy to wear around the house, but also a nice shirt that you can run errands in. One factor to consider is the weather. You don't want to be wearing a thin shirt in the middle of winter. If it's cold, go for a flannel shirt with long sleeves. 100% cotton will keep you warm and comfortable for hot weather. Like this check shirt in navy from Gant.
checked shirt by Gant
In the summer you can opt for thinner material and brighter colours to reflect the nice weather.
LAYER UP
A check shirt is also good for layering when it's not too cold. Adding an opened button flannel shirt over your t-shirt is a great look for added warmth. Remember, check shirts can be worn both done up and undone – as long as you're wearing something underneath, don't be that guy.
A plaid shirt can look great worn as a middle layer between your favourite tee and a denim jacket.
WEAR IT CASUALLY
A plaid top can look great worn with dark skinny jeans for an everyday look or even chinos if you want to get slightly smarter. Add a trusty pair of desert boots and you're all set for your day out in the city. A check shirt is also great for that rugged look – wear an oversized shirt over your favourite skinny jeans. If you're wearing a shirt with several patterns, make sure the other pieces are neutral, otherwise, you risk looking like a walking jumble sale.
SMARTEN IT UP
A check shirt can also be seen on many men dressed up on more formal occasions. A well-fitting shirt with a smart tie can make you look like the GQ style man you always wanted to be. Just be careful not to overdo it – a check shirt is a statement piece, not the focal point of your outfit.
A checked shirt is a versatile and stylish item that's definitely a wardrobe staple. There are so many ways to wear a plaid shirt that it's never going to go out of fashion any time soon.
Man In Green Checked Shirt
SMART CASUAL
When you're going to a more formal event, a checked shirt is perfectly acceptable to wear. But it is key to make sure you don't overwhelm yourself with the clash of patterns and colours. Small checks are considered neater and a more formal style compared to larger widespread checks. The sleeve length should be long to match a suit jacket. Also, if your event includes you having to wear a tie, then the thinner the tie the better as a thick tie can look uneasy against a checked shirt.
It is also important to remember the suit and tie should be in a neutral colour such as black. Otherwise, your outfit could look too “busy”. Slim jeans and leather shoes (or even a nice pair of ankle boots) can round off this look perfectly.
Smart casual is a difficult style to master when trying to wear a checked shirt. Try to go for neutral hues, quality material and long sleeves. Also, is your shirt is showing off a lot of colour in the plaid pattern? Then the rest of your outfit should be more subtle in order to match. Black jeans and smart sneakers are the easiest option and will go with any other clothes.
What Makes a Great Shirt

We talked to a few individuals and asked “What makes a good shirt?” to find out what people really want in the perfect custom printed t-shirt. Here's a summary of what we heard back:
An abstract message. A creative way to express the message of the company without using a logo. Using logos are cool if they're a part of the overall design that include other elements, but they shouldn't be the main focus. Simple designs resonate with me more, but a cool graphic is fun if it's done well or by a really awesome designer.
How it fits and feels. A shirt that is light and has breathable fabric is the best. It's nice if they are super soft but have good structure - the cut of it, the neck line and the sleeves are important. Long is good. Something that is fashion friendly and up with the trends, but not clingy and not too loose. Most blends are great because you don't have to iron them!
It goes with everything. Neutral colors are my go to. Black, white, and grey are the best colors. They go with everything. Other colors are cool too especially if it's for a good cause or representing my favorite sports team. I don't mind wearing bright colors for something like that.
Get rid of the tags. No tags, please! They are super itchy and irritating if they are constantly scratching the back of my neck. If a tag is super super soft, then that's fine and I don't notice it.
What Is A Classic Fit T-Shirt?
A regular fit T-shirt usually hugs snuggly around the body while leaving adequate room for comfort in the sleeves and waist. The right size regular fit T-shirt is loose, but not too much to the point of being sloppy or over-the-top.
Generally speaking, these T-shirts lean more into comfort than style, and are acceptable for any casual situation but you might not want to wear one to the office. Semi-fitted Classic T-Shirts are the go-to if you’d like to be smart casual at the office.
Regular fit T-shirts are not always ideal undergarments, as the loose tapering at the bottom of the shirt can be difficult to tuck in. Layering clothes with a regular fit T-shirt will feel heavier and not control temperature or moisture as well as a tighter fitting T-shirt.
The slim fit T-shirt has a narrow cut that focuses on minimal fabric, therefore, leading to a tighter fit that looks more modernized and hugs tightly to the body.
The goal of the shirt is to flatter the wearer's body by accentuating their muscles and structure to enhance confidence and masculinity. If you are in shape and an enthusiastic gym rat, then this is definitely the style for you.
This type of T-shirt works very well for a lean and built body frame, but it’s still important to tailor the outfit to your proper size.
The slim fit tends to have a high arm for slimmer trousers. Slim fit shirts tend to slim down through the chest and shoulder, giving you a more toned and sharp appearance.

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  Fabric manufacturing
Posté par : DFDVX125 - Aujourd’hui, - Forum : Présentez-vous... - Pas de réponse

Fabric manufacturing
Textile fabric may be defined as the flexible assembly of fibers or yarns, either natural or manmade. It may be produced by a number of techniques, the most common of which are weaving, knitting, bonding, felting or tufting. Conventional fabrics (woven, knitted) are produced in such a way that the fibers are first converted into yarn and subsequently this yarn is converted into fabric. The fabrics can also be produced directly from the fibers. Such fabrics are termed as nonwovens. Each of these methods is capable of producing a large number of fabric structures, depending upon the raw material, machinery and the process involved. These fabrics are used for a wide range of applications from clothing to the technical purposes.
1 Weaving
The history of weaving dates back to ancient times, when human beings used woven fabrics to cover themselves. There are evidences that Egyptians made woven fabrics some 6000 years ago and silk became economically important in China 4000 years ago. It is the most commonly used technique of fabric manufacturing. The woven fabrics have a huge number of application areas like apparel, home textiles, filters, geo textiles, composites, medical, packing, seatbelts, industrial products, protection, etc.
The woven fabrics are produced by interlacement of two set of yarns perpendicular to each other, the first set includes the threads running lengthwise in the fabric, while the second is represented by the threads placed in cross or width direction. The fabrics have varying structure, depending on the interlacement pattern of the yarns. This sequence of interlacements is termed as the weave design of the fabric. The properties of fabric are governed by its weave design as well as the fiber content used as the raw material.
2 Warp Preparation Steps
A summary of the process steps from yarn to the final product, here the warp yarn is subjected to a number of processes, termed as warp preparation before conversion into fabric, while weft yarn does not require any specific preparation. The warp preparatory process consists of the following operations: winding, warping, sizing and drawing-in.
Yarns produced in spinning are used as input of the warp preparation. Winding helps to prepare the yarn for a package which requires shape and size. Weft yarn is then provided to loom, while warp yarns are processed to give a sheet of yarns on warp beam by the process called warping. A coating of size material is applied to the yarn in the subsequent process to impart strength and make the yarn smooth. This warp sheet is then drawn in from the droppers, heald frames and the reed. The actual fabric forming process is carried out at the loom, where this warp sheet and weft are interlaced to give woven fabric.
This is only a brief introduction about it.
Whats the Difference? Gauze Pads vs. Gauze Sponges
Gauze is a type of thin medical fabric with a loose open weave used in wound care. Both gauze pads and gauze sponges are made of 100% cotton. They wick vertically to draw exudates out of wounds and are stronger than other types of dressings due to their longer fibers. Our gauze is offered in both sterile and non-sterile forms. For open wounds it is recommended to use sterile gauze only.
Gauze pads and gauze sponges are used in a number of different applications and are great for general cleaning, dressings, prepping, packing and debriding wounds. It can also be used as a temporary absorbent dressing over wounds. You would want to use gauze for cushioning or packing a wound, helping to heal the tissue from the inside out. The difference between these items are that gauze pads come with one per pack, while gauze sponges come with two or more per pack.
Absorbent
An absorbent material has small holes in it. When a liquid, such as water, comes into contact with a material with tiny holes in, such as paper or a sponge, the liquid is drawn into the tiny holes. It spreads out through the material using the holes. An absorbent material can even draw a liquid upwards. If you put a sponge or dishcloth on top of some water on a kitchen surface the water will go up into the absorbent material.
We use absorbent materials to soak up spills and for drying up. Kitchen towels (both cloth and paper) are absorbent. We use them for drying the washing up and for drying ourselves after a bath or a shower. Cotton wool is another absorbing material. It is used in bandages to absorb blood from a wound. A material called oasis is used to absorb water in a plant display, and pass it on to the plants.
Absorbent materials can be a problem. For example you do not want to be caught in a shower of rain when you are wearing absorbent materials. They will hold on to the water, making you feel wet and cold. Bricks absorb a little water. Those at the bottom of a wall absorb water from the ground. If this water moved up the wall and into the building it could cause damp walls. The water is stopped by placing a non-absorbent material between layers of bricks near the bottom of the wall. You may see this material as a black line in the cement low down in a wall. It is called a damp-proof course.
What Is Rayon? Here's What You Should Know
Rayon is one of the most versatile fabrics around, yet it remains somewhat of a mystery. That's partly because of its remarkable ability to shape-shift—not just literally, but also in terms of imitating other fabrics. Rayon has been known to take on the properties of silk, cotton, wool, and others, and can be used in nearly any type of clothing. This can make it challenging to pin down exactly what it is, how to launder it, and what type of weather it's best suited for. To help boost your familiarity with this ubiquitous fabric, keep reading to see everything you need to know about rayon.
What Is Rayon?
Rayon is one of the most versatile fabrics around, yet it remains somewhat of a mystery. That's partly because of its remarkable ability to shape-shift—not just literally, but also in terms of imitating other fabrics. Rayon has been known to take on the properties of silk, cotton, wool, and others, and can be used in nearly any type of clothing. This can make it challenging to pin down exactly what it is, how to launder it, and what type of weather it's best suited for. To help boost your familiarity with this ubiquitous fabric, keep reading to see everything you need to know about rayon.
What Is Rayon Made of?
In a nutshell, rayon is a fabric made from purified cellulose fibers, which are typically created from wood pulp. Though rayon is derived from natural materials, it requires certain chemicals, so it's considered to be a semi-synthetic fabric.
One of the most common types of rayon is viscose rayon, which has a lot in common with cotton. It's breathable, moisture-absorbent, and a popular choice for casual and athletic wear. It also shows up in dresses, blouses, and outerwear. Secondary types of rayon include modal rayon (typically made from beech trees) and lyocell (seen in everything from denim to dress shirts).
Laundering rayon takes a little extra consideration. Rayon is often blended with other fabrics (such as polyester and cotton), so washing instructions can vary significantly. While its texture and versatility make it an ideal choice for a range of apparel, rayon isn't a durable fabric, and standard machine washing can cause it to stretch, shrink, or bleed onto other articles of clothing. As a result, most experts recommend hand-washing rayon, but always be sure to check the care label instructions beforehand.
What is Air Jet Loom?
Air jet loom is one kinds of shuttle less loom. Normally, air jet loom uses a jet of air for propelling the filling yarn through the weaving shed. It requires uniform filling yarn. They are suitable use with medium weight yarns then very light and very heavy yarn. Air jet loom is one of the two types of fluid jet looms where another one is water jet loom.
Features of Air Jet Loom:Some key features of air jet loom have mentioned in the below:

  1. In case of air jet loom, higher weft insertion performance occurred.

  2. Less power consumption in air jet loom.

  3. It needs multi-color weft insertion up to eight.

  4. Air jet loom provides higher production than others.

  5. Light and medium fabric has produced here.

  6. Here fabric width is 190 cm.
Advantages of Air Jet LoomBig Grinifferent advantages of air jet loom have pointed out in the following:
  1. In case of air jet loom, noise level is lower than rapier loom and missile.

  2. Normally, standard width of air jet loom is 190cm.

  3. Weft insertion performance is too much here (normally 600pm).

  4. It consumes very low power.
Disadvantages of Air Jet Loom:The main disadvantages f air jet loom are-
  1. Broken pick or miss pick has occurred due to excess air pressure of main nozzle.

  2. In case of air jet loom, pile up and buckle tip of yarn formed due to air resistance.

  3. Double pick may occur in air jet loom.

  4. Loom of weft yarn along weft direction formed due to variation of air pressure.

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  The Different Types of Structural Steel and Their Uses in Construction
Posté par : DFDVX125 - Aujourd’hui, - Forum : Présentez-vous... - Pas de réponse

The Different Types of Structural Steel and Their Uses in Construction
Steel is well known for providing structure and strength unlike any other when it comes to construction. The durability and potency that steel provides is not matched by the likes of wood or concrete. More often than not, it's the case that steel is the material of choice for construction, and people prefer steel due to its various advantages.
Steel buildings tend to be built using various frames too, for example clearspan, modular and single slope. Due to the fact that steel is much easier and less time-consuming when it comes to building, along with its numerous other factors that have proved advantageous, steel, these days, has become the most sought after way of constructing buildings.
With steel, we can create structures like no other material when it comes to construction. No other material has the potency and durability that steel does. Structural steel has undoubtedly become the preferred choice for construction due to the various benefits it has. The buildings that are made from steel require various structural frames. Also, constructing with steel entails much less time which makes it the most sought after way of constructing structures.
With this in mind, in this blog, we outline some of the various types of steel and the benefits it can offer you. Read on to discover more about this versatile and timeless building material.
Structural Steel
Firstly its beneficial to know what structural steel actually is and how it is formed. Structural steel shapes are made out of this kind of steel, which is formated from a precise cross section. Yet, at the same time it follows definite standards for mechanical properties and chemical composition.
Structural steel comes in various shapes like L-beam, Z shape, HSS shape, L shape (angle), structural channel (C-beam, cross section), T shaped, rail profile, bar, rod, plate and an open joist of web steel.
Standard structural steel varies in different countries with various specifications. For example, European I-beam is Euronorm 19-57, whereas structural steel in the USA comes in carbon, low alloy, corrosion resistant high strength low alloy, quenched and tempered alloy steel etc.
Structural steel is versatile, strong and durable, so it's hardly surprising that it can be morphed into almost any shape based on the construction project at hand; it can be constructed almost immediately the moment it is received on the building site. Structural steel is fire-resistant in itself but fire protection methods should be put in place in case there is a possibility of it getting heated up to a point where it starts to lose its durability and strength.
Corrosion has to be prevented when it comes to structural steel, but tall buildings are known to have withstood various kinds of adversities when built using structural steel.
Steel construction is increasing in popularity all over the world, with every region benefitting from steel throughout the years.Many of the best architectural wonders have been constructed through the use of steel, be it structural, carbon or rebar, including The Empire State Building and the Sydney Harbour Bridge. More importantly, the usage of steel is beneficial in terms of eco friendliness than other modes of construction, and due to this factor alone, it is given more preference.
Taking into consideration the rate of marvellous constructions, steel has proved favourable. With the usage of steel increasing within the construction industry, there is no doubt that it will take over the entire construction field soon in the future.
Here we take a look at the various types of structural steel and its uses in construction.
A Lesson on the Ultimate Load-Bearing Structural Solution
The construction industry is embracing a younger and stronger framing material that delivers benefits for architects, contractors, developers and tenants. Discover why this versatile steel design is outmatching everything else.
Light-gauge steel (also known as cold-formed steel and cold-rolled steel) is a cold-formed material that is used to make construction processes smoother and products stronger. It does not deteriorate, like wood. It is not bulky, like structural steel. It is not heavy, like concrete. It is something completely different, and if you have ever worked with it before, you know that there is a practically endless list of benefits. Let's look further into this wonder material and how iSPAN Systems' light-gauge steel structural solutions can benefit you on your next project.
Light-Gauge Steel's Inception for the Benefit of Contractors
Early in the 1900s, builders began searching for new ways to use steel. Hot-rolled structural steel was extremely strong, but expensive and difficult to install. The innovation and housing shortage after WWII spurred research into light-gauge steel as a load bearing and non-load bearing element. It was found to be 20% stronger than hot-rolled steel with a far superior strength to weight ratio, with significantly less material and energy use than anything else.
Once American design standards came around in 1946, builders quickly began moving forward on constructing homes and mid-rise buildings out of this newly approved building material. In the 1950s and 1960s, as the economy grew, so did the number of cold-formed steel structures in the commercial market.
Today, after further research and engineering support, light-gauge steel is standard use in many new single homes and mid-rise buildings, such as hotels, apartments and condominiums.
What is Possible With Light-Gauge Steel?
The question should be “What isn't possible?” because there is an endless list of uses for this versatile steel product: everything from cars and bridges to storage racks and furniture.
iSPAN Systems has mastered light-gauge steel in building structures and continues to research new possibilities. No matter the building use, iSPAN can pursue and work with its clients on coming up with a cold-formed solution: trusses, joists, walls, floor decking (Composite TotalJoist) and other components.
What is the Big Deal about Light-Gauge Steel?
It's fairly new, but it's rapidly growing in popularity. Why is that? This light and strong material makes the building process better for everyone, whether you're an architect, contractor or developer.
Light-Gauge Steel Benefits for Architect
iSPAN is a single-source supplier, backed with a design/engineering team
Allows for large spans resulting in more spacious spaces
Reduces/eliminates bulkheads
Results in fewer plan changes and costly mistakes since materials are prefabricated
Environmentally friendly choice using recyclable materials
Each detail is planned prior to construction

Multi Storey Steel Buildings
Here's why multi storied buildings are an affordable and convenient solution for your construction needs
Multi storied buildings are a cost-effective solution owing to considerable reduction in initial foundation and infrastructure expenses.
It speeds up construction time due to relative ease of installation.
Multi storied buildings are extremely strong and durable and are earthquake and weather resistant.
There are lesser dead loads as compared to regular concrete buildings.
The need for lesser columns enables the construction of longer spaces.
It is an eco-friendly solution as the steel structures are 100% recyclable and don’t cause material wastage and pollution.
It is corrosion resistant and requires minimum maintenance.
Features
The buildings are also fire resistant owing to the following features
Intumescent paint
This is a coating that swells as a result of heat exposure, thus increasing volume and decreasing in density and offering passive fire protection.
Gypsum board
This is also a passive fire protection material containing chemically combined water which under high heat releases steam and prevents heat transfer.
Vermiculite spray
This fire protectant spray is coated on structural steel to build a fire barrier and protect the steel building.
Column encasing
This is designed to protect the structure by preventing it from reaching the critical failure temperature of 550 degrees celcius. Various systems can be installed for the purpose such as fire-rated insulation boards, concrete cladding as well as spray coating and intumescent paints.
Steel bridge structure – advantages, elements and components
Steel bridges are widely used around the world in different structural forms with different span length, such as highway bridges, railway bridges, and footbridges. The main advantages of structural steel over other construction materials are its strength, ductility, easy fabrication, and rapid construction. It has a much higher strength in both tension and compression than concrete, and relatively good strength to cost ratio and stiffness to weight ratio. Steel is a versatile and effective material that provides efficient and sustainable solutions for bridge construction, particularly for long span bridges or bridges requiring enhanced seismic performance.
Amongst bridge materials steel has the highest and most favorable strength qualities, and it is therefore suitable for the most daring bridges with the longest spans. Normal building steel has compressive and tensile strengths of 370 N/sq mm, about ten times the compressive strength of a medium concrete and a hundred times its tensile strength. A special merit of steel is its ductility due to which it deforms considerably before it breaks, because it begins to yield above a certain stress level.
Advantages of Steel bridge structure
The multiple advantages of steel equate to a more cost-effective option than other building materials. Smaller crews working with smaller scale construction equipment can install and erect steel-based projects because of its light weight. This lighter weight also allows for faster installation, so projects are erected more quickly. This timeliness also affords key cost-savings advantages to construction companies. Some of its advantages are-

  • Lower construction costs compared with other materials helps save money for municipal governments. Faster construction reduces traffic and business disruption.


  • Steel bridges last longer than other types, which means they don’t have to be replaced as quickly. Steel components require less maintenance and don’t need to be replaced as often.


  • Steel is highly adaptable to different climates and geographic conditions. The relative lightness of steel compared with other materials reduces energy use during delivery and construction.


  • Steel components are less likely to be damaged during extreme events like hurricanes and earthquakes. Steel components are used to transmit critical utility services across bridges.


  • Steel has a remarkably high strength-to-weight ratio. This minimizes the weight of bridge superstructures, which reduces the cost of building the substructures that support them.


  • One of the biggest advantages of steel is weight savings, which means lower erection costs, since the bridge pieces can be handled with lighter equipment. In addition, for the same span and load, a steel girder requires less depth than a concrete girder, which can be helpful when constrained by vertical clearance requirements.


  • Generally, it’s easier to make spans continuous for both live and dead loads and to develop composite action with steel designs rather than with concrete ones.


  • It’s easier to inspect and determine the structural state of a steel bridge where all the components are visible. The long-term durability and cost effectiveness of steel bridges will be further enhanced by the use of high performance steels with weathering capabilities.


  • Steel permits cost-effective longer spans for crossing streams, lakes, wetlands, and environmentally protected areas. The long spans may eliminate or at least minimize environmental impact.


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